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Offline lmedberry  
#1 Posted : 17 May 2015 08:19:55(UTC)
lmedberry

United States   
Joined: 14/01/2015(UTC)
Posts: 55
Hi All,

New items for my AMS addiction. BigGrin

Faller Nurburging 4008

UserPostedImage

UserPostedImage

UserPostedImage

UserPostedImage

Faller 6016 Trafo unfortunately no box.

UserPostedImage

UserPostedImage

Thanks for looking,
Lance
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Offline kweekalot  
#2 Posted : 17 May 2015 21:50:15(UTC)
kweekalot

Netherlands   
Joined: 27/06/2012(UTC)
Posts: 3,341
Location: Holland
UserPostedImageUserPostedImageUserPostedImage

Hi Lance,

Good find !
Very, very nice. ThumpUp

Maybe the transformer has the wrong voltage for the US ?

Marco
Offline lmedberry  
#3 Posted : 17 May 2015 23:32:41(UTC)
lmedberry

United States   
Joined: 14/01/2015(UTC)
Posts: 55
Hi Marco,

Yes the transformer is 220 European but I have ordered a converter that hopefully should work and give the proper output I hope. I read good reviews about this item and the price was very reasonable.

The Marklin sprint transformers are the same way and there seems like there are no other options. Once I receive the unit I can test the difference. Right now with just a plug adapter the output of the Marklin is only 10 volts and should be around 14 volts. I will report back with my findings.

UserPostedImage

Lance

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Offline lmedberry  
#4 Posted : 19 May 2015 06:15:59(UTC)
lmedberry

United States   
Joined: 14/01/2015(UTC)
Posts: 55
HI,

The converter came in today and did work well. Brought the voltage up to 19 volts using the 220 out socket. Not sure exactly what the output of the Marklin sprint transformer is when used in the right conditions. That would be handy to know.

Lance
Offline hellwigm  
#5 Posted : 25 July 2015 11:23:32(UTC)
hellwigm


Joined: 08/08/2010(UTC)
Posts: 35
Location: Germany, Hessen
Great thing.... gratulations. Are you going to build it with the landscape around?
Offline lmedberry  
#6 Posted : 25 July 2015 20:43:54(UTC)
lmedberry

United States   
Joined: 14/01/2015(UTC)
Posts: 55
Originally Posted by: hellwigm Go to Quoted Post
Great thing.... gratulations. Are you going to build it with the landscape around?


I have been thinking that is what I want to do. I think I have seen your build on hoslot forum.

I did buy about 100 old faller trees just in case!

Lance

Offline hellwigm  
#7 Posted : 26 July 2015 21:12:13(UTC)
hellwigm


Joined: 08/08/2010(UTC)
Posts: 35
Location: Germany, Hessen
... seems to be enough trees, better you count them from the catalogue-photo

Offline lmedberry  
#8 Posted : 14 December 2015 07:42:13(UTC)
lmedberry

United States   
Joined: 14/01/2015(UTC)
Posts: 55
Hard to count how many.

How is your build coming?
Offline lmedberry  
#9 Posted : 23 May 2022 04:17:18(UTC)
lmedberry

United States   
Joined: 14/01/2015(UTC)
Posts: 55
Hi everyone,

It has been a while but I decided to get back in to the faller addiction!

How is everyone doing?

I have been trying to figure out how the cars run on AC or DC. It is a bit confusing.


Lance




Offline cookee_nz  
#10 Posted : 23 May 2022 07:50:12(UTC)
cookee_nz

New Zealand   
Joined: 31/12/2010(UTC)
Posts: 3,817
Location: Paremata, Wellington
Originally Posted by: lmedberry Go to Quoted Post
Hi everyone,

It has been a while but I decided to get back in to the faller addiction!

How is everyone doing?

I have been trying to figure out how the cars run on AC or DC. It is a bit confusing.

Lance




Hi Lance,

ALL Faller AMS autos are DC. Faller was a bit ahead of its time and had some interesting technical innovations. One of those was the ability to control two cars in the same lane independently using the 'half-wave' principle.

To do this required the use of AC, which was then rectified into half-wave DC. Where it gets confusing (you're not the first) is working out which components work with each other.

Faller already used AC to power their model-motors used in various kits, and also the electric pump for their fountains so they had some head-start.

If you try to run a Faller Auto directly off AC, it will just hum and not go anywhere and this catches many beginners out right away.

I recommend first working out which of your vehicles actually run as they are because that will cut your troubleshooting down considerably.

Use a 9v battery to test each auto and sort them accordingly. Test like this.......



If you do have a DC transformer, you could use that as well, 12v DC will be fine, but no more than 16v. Don't use any AC transformer at this stage, let's keep it real simple.

One of three things will happen.

1: It won't work at all. Service will be required. Set aside for now.
2: It will run, but either forward or in reverse. If it runs in reverse, turn the battery/power source polarity other way around.
3: It will run, but only with the battery one way round, and (just to be really confusing), may only run in reverse.

You need to understand the design of the vehicle chassis to make sense of this and it will depend on your own understanding of electricity and motors.

For the purpose of this discussion, depending on how many vehicles you actually have I would further divide your results.

A: Vehicles that run well in both directions by rotating the battery terminals
B: Vehicles that only run forward but not at all when the battery polarity is reversed
C: Vehicles that only run Backwards, but not all all with reversed polarity.

Be sure to test always the same way. For consistency, you might like to decide that the + terminal will equal one or other of the pickups (driver side for example). It doesn't matter which, but be consistent.

Next, I would set up a small test track, basically an oval, with a feeder track so that you can give each car a good run. They will run much better when warmed up. Connect the wires from one lane to the 9v Battery. If you have two batteries, all the better, then you can run two, or a DC Transformer.

If they have not run for a while, it's very likely they will only run in "fits and starts" for two reasons

Dirty track
Poor connections between tracks (the copper joiners). Clean, tighten, try again.

You want to get to the point where at least one vehicle is doing a complete circuit of the oval reliably, and if left for a day or so, runs reliably again as soon as powered on.

Then we can move on to the next stage.

Also, you can check out this group of Facebook (if you use it)

https://www.facebook.com/groups/faller.ams

Edited by user 23 May 2022 11:58:14(UTC)  | Reason: Not specified

Cookee
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Offline lmedberry  
#11 Posted : 23 May 2022 22:23:20(UTC)
lmedberry

United States   
Joined: 14/01/2015(UTC)
Posts: 55
Hi Cookee,

Awesome advise very helpful. Did the 9 volt battery test and as I am sure no one is surprised, they do not run. Will get them running and will update with my progress.

Lance

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Offline cookee_nz  
#12 Posted : 23 May 2022 22:57:20(UTC)
cookee_nz

New Zealand   
Joined: 31/12/2010(UTC)
Posts: 3,817
Location: Paremata, Wellington
Originally Posted by: lmedberry Go to Quoted Post
Hi Cookee,

Awesome advise very helpful. Did the 9 volt battery test and as I am sure no one is surprised, they do not run. Will get them running and will update with my progress.

Lance



Advantage to that test is that it cuts down troubleshooting considerably.

Had you set up some track, power etc and of course the car would not work, you'd have no idea where the problem was.

Do you have a multi-meter?, indispensable for diagnosis and repairs. For one thing, confirming that the battery is good. You can get an inexpensive basic digital multi-meter for next to nothing these days at almost any electronic or hardware stores.

Can you post some photos of what you do have, that will give a starting point. The Transformers, Controllers etc.

And of course the vehicles, with the bodies removed. Top, side and undersides. There are a LOT of chassis variants across the years and it definitely helps to know which is which.

Repairs are usually not too difficult, but can be a little fiddly on some versions.

Smile

Cookee
Wellington
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Offline lmedberry  
#13 Posted : 24 May 2022 05:08:50(UTC)
lmedberry

United States   
Joined: 14/01/2015(UTC)
Posts: 55
Hi Cookee,

I did get the three cars to work today.

B: Vehicles that only run forward but not at all when the battery polarity is reversed
the two that came out of the 4008 kit do this

C: Vehicles that only run Backwards, but not all all with reversed polarity.
One car does this

I did not have time today to try them on a track. I will do that tomorrow.

The 6016 transformer hums but has no output either AC or DC. The 4017 has 20 volts of DC.

Lance

Here are the pictures.image000005.jpgimage000004.jpgimage000002.jpgimage000000.jpgimage000001.jpg
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Offline lmedberry  
#14 Posted : 25 May 2022 04:51:39(UTC)
lmedberry

United States   
Joined: 14/01/2015(UTC)
Posts: 55
Cookee,

I set up a small test track and ran it both on 9 volts and the 6016 on DC. The two cars run n opposite directions only and nothing else happens when switching the polarity on either power source.

I still need to get the one that goes in reverse to work more reliably. So further news will be coming on that one. Please see the attached pictures.



Thanks for all the help!!!

Lanc

image000002 (1).jpgimage000000 (2).jpgimage000001 (2).jpg
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Offline kiwiAlan  
#15 Posted : 25 May 2022 12:39:09(UTC)
kiwiAlan

United Kingdom   
Joined: 23/07/2014(UTC)
Posts: 6,929
Location: ENGLAND, Didcot
Originally Posted by: lmedberry Go to Quoted Post

image000000 (2).jpg


Well, that is an appropriate place to be testing them BigGrin BigGrin BigGrin Cool
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Offline JohnjeanB  
#16 Posted : 25 May 2022 14:31:25(UTC)
JohnjeanB

France   
Joined: 04/02/2011(UTC)
Posts: 2,128
Location: Paris, France
Originally Posted by: lmedberry Go to Quoted Post
I still need to get the one that goes in reverse to work more reliably. So further news will be coming on that one. Please see the attached pictures.


Hi Lanc
Just in case you don't know it, Faller AMS cars can be easily be polarity inversed (so that both your cars run in the same direction):
- with flat motors, by opening the motor and per swapping the magnets
- with block motor, by removing the motor and reinstalling it after a 180° rotation (the once bottom part becomes top and conversely)

On my first Märklin layout I had an AMS circuit, back in 1965. They were great, a bit oversized and with contact issues because of the cellar humidity.
My first AMS car was a Mercedes convertible with a "Block" motor and the second one was a Jaguar XKE (E type) with a flat motor.
I finished my student years and sold the whole layout to purchase a car and go to the army (conscription in France then)
Sadly I have no pictures of it so I took revenge by having a Faller car system on my 2014 layout


Cheers
Jean
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Offline lmedberry  
#17 Posted : 26 May 2022 01:49:18(UTC)
lmedberry

United States   
Joined: 14/01/2015(UTC)
Posts: 55
Hi Jean,

This is very good to know "- with flat motors, by opening the motor and per swapping the magnets
- with block motor, by removing the motor and reinstalling it after a 180° rotation (the once bottom part becomes top and conversely)"

That helps a lot!

I also have a couple more questions as well.

What is and what purpose is the little disc on some of the cars?

image000000 (1).jpg

And what are the two electronic items on the feeder track?

image000000.jpg







Thanks all, Lance
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Offline JohnjeanB  
#18 Posted : 26 May 2022 02:19:56(UTC)
JohnjeanB

France   
Joined: 04/02/2011(UTC)
Posts: 2,128
Location: Paris, France
Hi Lance
Originally Posted by: lmedberry Go to Quoted Post


What is and what purpose is the little disc on some of the cars?

And what are the two electronic items on the feeder track?


The disk I suppose is a rectifier to be used when AC is used to control 2 cars on the same track.
The rectifier is I think selenium and can be either a disk to be inserted in the Block motors or with a slider to be used also with flat motors
Faller FrotteurDiodeAMS.png
The rectifier is only to be used when 2 cars are needed on the same track, one car uses the negative part of the AC current and the other one the positive side
The speed controllers must be fed in all cases with DC current.
The rest is explained on the Faller AMS Post 2 Technik which I have but in German language

The components under the feeder track are noise suppressors (capacitors) to reduce noise on non-cable TV
Cheers
Jean
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Offline cookee_nz  
#19 Posted : 26 May 2022 11:11:18(UTC)
cookee_nz

New Zealand   
Joined: 31/12/2010(UTC)
Posts: 3,817
Location: Paremata, Wellington
Hi all, sorry for delay, work sometimes gets in the way

Thanks for the chassis photos, that helps clarify what is what, and good to see you do have a Faller DC Transformer also.

Jean referred to the Technical Catalogue which I think you will find useful.

I've attached below several pages relevant to what you need to know, the missing pages relate to other accessories not relevant to this discussion for now.

The key thing as Jean has pointed out is the orientation of the armature magnets, and the built-in selenium plates (half-wave rectifiers, or basically Diodes as would normally be used)

Please note that the Technical booklet 882 does not cover all the controller options. That book was first published in 1967, 4 years after the introduction of the AMS system.

There is a much earlier book with goes into real technical detail, but German only (I have done an e-translation but it's hard-going).

I've added some sample pages at the end just to help wake you up.

882acvr.jpg

882p02.jpg

882p03.jpg

882p04.jpg

882p05.jpg

882p06.jpg

882p07.jpg

882P08.jpg

882p09.jpg

882p14.jpg

882p16.jpg

From the original 851/D...

851aacvr.jpg

851p22.jpg

851p23.jpg

851p24.jpg

851p25.jpg
Cookee
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Offline cookee_nz  
#20 Posted : 26 May 2022 11:37:43(UTC)
cookee_nz

New Zealand   
Joined: 31/12/2010(UTC)
Posts: 3,817
Location: Paremata, Wellington
Originally Posted by: JohnjeanB Go to Quoted Post
Hi Lance
Originally Posted by: lmedberry Go to Quoted Post


What is and what purpose is the little disc on some of the cars?

And what are the two electronic items on the feeder track?


The disk I suppose is a rectifier to be used when AC is used to control 2 cars on the same track.
The rectifier is I think selenium and can be either a disk to be inserted in the Block motors or with a slider to be used also with flat motors
(snip)
The rectifier is only to be used when 2 cars are needed on the same track, one car uses the negative part of the AC current and the other one the positive side
The speed controllers must be fed in all cases with DC current.
The rest is explained on the Faller AMS Post 2 Technik which I have but in German language

The components under the feeder track are noise suppressors (capacitors) to reduce noise on non-cable TV
Cheers
Jean


"The components under the feeder track are noise suppressors (capacitors) to reduce noise on non-cable TV"

On that track Jean, those are actually selenium plates, inserted for the two-car control. They are designed to be used with this wiring configuration below...

While Faller did continuously evolve and improve the AMS system technically, they did themselves no favours by failing to publish a comprehensive wiring document to cover all the possibilities.

When you understand it, you can figure out what works with what reasonably easily, but even I sometimes get tripped up trying to explain it. There are lots of German sites and forums etc that cater well for AMS, but very little in English.

Something I have worked at on and off to help improve over the years but somewhat sporadically I'm afraid. Discussions like this give me renewed enthusiasm.

Wiring diagram from 1967 catalogue...

67p05.jpg

4702 track with Power Input

4702-powertrack-newest.jpg
Cookee
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Offline cookee_nz  
#21 Posted : 26 May 2022 11:51:26(UTC)
cookee_nz

New Zealand   
Joined: 31/12/2010(UTC)
Posts: 3,817
Location: Paremata, Wellington
And Jean, just for you... BigGrin

AMS 2 French Cover.jpg

AMS 2 French Page 6.jpg

AMS 2 French Page 7.jpg
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Offline JohnjeanB  
#22 Posted : 26 May 2022 12:13:57(UTC)
JohnjeanB

France   
Joined: 04/02/2011(UTC)
Posts: 2,128
Location: Paris, France
Thanks Cookee, the manual (AMS Post 2 TECHNIK) is exactly the one I was referring to.
I stand corrected about the selenium cells on the feeder track.
The second brochure 851D is very interesting and describes the complexity of the overtake track section with a relay, a slow-down potentiometer for the overtaken car.


I was very fond of Faller AMS but the timing was bad because as soon as I got it, I went to an Engineer school (not much free time) and then to the army (drafted in Germany) so I got rid of my train and AMS stuff.
When in your 20s you think more about girls and cars than about trains.
Thanks again for the information
Cheers
Jean

Edited by user 26 May 2022 18:29:32(UTC)  | Reason: Not specified

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Offline Ross  
#23 Posted : 27 May 2022 00:49:53(UTC)
Ross

Australia   
Joined: 25/09/2006(UTC)
Posts: 823
Location: Sydney, NSW
Hi Cookee,

Thanks for providing the above information.
Ross
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Offline cookee_nz  
#24 Posted : 27 May 2022 08:24:57(UTC)
cookee_nz

New Zealand   
Joined: 31/12/2010(UTC)
Posts: 3,817
Location: Paremata, Wellington
Originally Posted by: lmedberry Go to Quoted Post
Hi Jean,

This is very good to know "- with flat motors, by opening the motor and per swapping the magnets
- with block motor, by removing the motor and reinstalling it after a 180° rotation (the once bottom part becomes top and conversely)"

That helps a lot!

I also have a couple more questions as well.

What is and what purpose is the little disc on some of the cars?

(snip)

And what are the two electronic items on the feeder track?

(image snip)

Thanks all, Lance


What is and what purpose is the little disc on some of the cars?

Sorry, I mean to comment on this also, the little disc is the interference suppressor for Radio & TV. Not probably much of an issue these days with modern tech because they usually filter out anyway but anything that sparks can cause issues.

Interesting I note it was not referenced on the exploded view for some reason, shown but not described.

Hope this clarifies

And I already answered via Jean's post re the selenium rectifier plates built into the track section.

FALLER did attempt to make this somewhat clear with some little details that are easy to miss.

1: The guide pins come in a variety of colours. Black & White, Red & Green. Some also have a small pointer. Red & Green point opposite directions.

2: The magnets are coloured. Black and Red for earlier versions, then Green and Red later on. You must match them correctly.

3: Some chassis versions have a small hole underneath through which the magnet colour can be easily seen.

So, in theory, by simply turning the car over, you can see just by the pickup which track and direction it 'should' run.

Note also that FALLER had two very distinct types of operation;

RACING and TRAFFIC

Racing is obvious, and is what most people expect upon seeing a slot-car. Two or more vehicles, driving side-by-side, independent control, may the best man win!!

Cars designed for racing have a gear ratio to match.

Traffic on the other hand is primarily for model-railways, although if it quite possible to build an elaborate city or suburban scene with no railway and the cars are the focus.

Either way, the aim with Traffic operation is to be running in opposing directions but still with independent control.

And... at much slower speeds so the chassis for Traffic operation have a lower gear ratio. Cars with Racing chassis simply cannot run smoothly at slow speeds.

And and.... some cars are also designed to be able to run backwards in the Traffic mode.

So you have to determine which is the default direction your cars are set to, and which you prefer to run. Some simply run better than others

And just when you thought you had it nailed !!




Cookee
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Offline lmedberry  
#25 Posted : 28 May 2022 04:27:19(UTC)
lmedberry

United States   
Joined: 14/01/2015(UTC)
Posts: 55
Cookee,

Thank you for all of this amazing information.

If you turn the square selenium plates on the cars upside down does it run in the opposite way?

How did the selenium chips on the track work?

Lance
Offline lmedberry  
#26 Posted : 28 May 2022 04:47:30(UTC)
lmedberry

United States   
Joined: 14/01/2015(UTC)
Posts: 55
here is a usefull link

faller connections
Offline cookee_nz  
#27 Posted : 28 May 2022 12:48:44(UTC)
cookee_nz

New Zealand   
Joined: 31/12/2010(UTC)
Posts: 3,817
Location: Paremata, Wellington
Originally Posted by: lmedberry Go to Quoted Post
Cookee,

Thank you for all of this amazing information.

If you turn the square selenium plates on the cars upside down does it run in the opposite way?

How did the selenium chips on the track work?

Lance


Reversing the selenium plate will not change the direction. What it changes is which cycle of the AC wave is allowed through (or blocked) - both mean much the same thing.

This is explained in the previous attached pages, specifically the "Half Wave Principle"

Maybe easiest if you break a chassis down to the most basic form, a simple DC motor. Fortunately, that is easy. Just remove the Selenium plate. But be sure that the contacts which were separated by the plate are now actually touching.

I'm also assuming the chassis does not have any of the pickups with the built-in selenium plate fitted (you showed a photo of one in an earlier post)

Your DC power source (Battery or Trafo) will have + and - terminals. Connecting these to the pickups will make the motor run one direction. Now reverse those wires, the motor will run the opposite direction.

If you have the power source connected so that the chassis runs forward, there is one other way you can make it tun in reverse without swapping the connection polarity - swap the magnets! As easy as that.

For the purposes of this discussion, it might be easiest to decide to let the magnet placement determine which direction the vehicle will run. And that's all fine and simple, and would work very well.

But it has one limitation, and that's to do with the way FALLER wire their track feeders.

Some feeder tracks have a pair of wires for each line, and the lanes are electrically separated. But, earlier track made the two inside rails of each lane to be common. Why this is important is because of the so-called 'squeeze' or bottle-neck track section. This has one lane avoiding a small moulded 'roadwork' area. It's a novelty piece, but by design the two inside rails are in contact at the closest point. I only mention this because if you have this track section, but want to have totally electrically isolated lanes, you're out of luck. It's one or the other. But if you don't have the squeeze section, it won't matter.

Where I can, I will generally refer to the most recent design system, and note as required if there is anything for older systems that should be taken into account.

Ok, back to the vehicle direction. If you want to run all you cars on DC, then you can simply ditch the selenium plates altogether, one controller per track, DC source power, very simple.

Any vehicle that runs in the wrong direction is probably better to open up, and reverse the magnets. But if you prefer not to do this, you can just keep note of which vehicle/s run backwards and reverse the wiring polarity instead.

On the other hand, if you want to run the cars off AC, then you will need to install the selenium plate. It really depends what you want to do with the setup, either traditional slot-car racing or included into a model railway.

Going back to how AC works, here's a very rough description. The current alternates 50 times a second (for 50Hz countries). Therefore the output from the Trafo on the Brown and Yellow wires is 'positive' half of the time, and negative the other half. This is why a DC motor will just hum or buzz on AC, it's working, but is changing direction 50 times a second. Using the selenium plate prevents one half of the current getting through, so the motor sees it as very much like DC (purists and electrical engineers will jump all over this but it's very simplified).

With the selenium plate installed one way round, the vehicle might respond to the 'positive' half cycle. But by simply flipping the selenium plate over, it will now respond to the 'negative' half-cycle. Do not confuse this with Polarity, they are not the same thing, but each can affect the other.

You asked about the selenium plates in the track? - this is one thing to watch for. In the original design, there is normally a selenium plate in each vehicle, and one in each controller. Later designs did away with them in the controller, especially the hand-throttle types you have so the 'control' selenium plate was incorporated into the track instead.

For the half-wave system to work fully as designed, you need a selenium plate for each track lane, and a corresponding one in each vehicle.

Phew, it's real easy to demonstrate one on one, but a written explanation needs a lot of words, or simple diagrams, such as those I posted previously

Does this make any sense? Have I over-explained, or missed something out?

Please keep asking, there is no such thing as a dumb question. Some people get it right away, others get it when explained in a different way but experimentation with your setup is probably the fastest way to learn, just makes notes if anything you change so you can follow the cause and effect.
Cookee
Wellington
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Offline cookee_nz  
#28 Posted : 28 May 2022 12:51:43(UTC)
cookee_nz

New Zealand   
Joined: 31/12/2010(UTC)
Posts: 3,817
Location: Paremata, Wellington
Originally Posted by: lmedberry Go to Quoted Post
here is a usefull link

faller connections


Thanks for including that link, I have it saved from past browsing but overlooked referring to it.

The Swedish AMS club has been going a very long time, the descriptions and diagrams they show are very good and might already have cleared things up for you?

Cheers
Cookee
Wellington
NZ image
Offline JohnjeanB  
#29 Posted : 28 May 2022 16:19:38(UTC)
JohnjeanB

France   
Joined: 04/02/2011(UTC)
Posts: 2,128
Location: Paris, France
Originally Posted by: cookee_nz Go to Quoted Post
Reversing the selenium plate will not change the direction.What it changes is which cycle of the AC wave is allowed through (or blocked) - both mean much the same thing.

Hi Cookee and all
Reversing the SIDE (not the orientation) of the selenium plate, will force the motor to use the other half of the AC current BUT by doing so the DC motor will turn in the other direction so, depending on the motor type (flat or Block) the magnets will have to be swapped between each other, or the motor must be removed , rotated 180° on its axis and then re-inserted into place.

Those selenium rectifiers were the rage during the 50s and early 60s past which Germanium and Silicon diodes (1N4007 and the like) were ubiquitous
Cheers
Jean
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Offline lmedberry  
#30 Posted : 03 June 2022 04:37:26(UTC)
lmedberry

United States   
Joined: 14/01/2015(UTC)
Posts: 55
Cookee

Wow your information is explained perfectly! I understand a ton more now.

Thank you so very much Lance.
Offline lmedberry  
#31 Posted : 03 June 2022 04:44:48(UTC)
lmedberry

United States   
Joined: 14/01/2015(UTC)
Posts: 55
Jean,

Your knowledge is very helpful as well!

Thank you Lance
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